Volume 3 : Issue 1, January 2013

Table of Content, 29 Jan 2013

Research Title/
Graphical Abstract

Article Information /


 Effect of different salt concentrations on mineral content of the Fish Hydrocynus spp.

Original Research, C1

Bakhiet. H.H.A. Khogali F.A.H and Ahmed F.A.M.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 01-03, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This piece of work was directed towards the study to compare the effect of the different salt concentrations on the mineral content in both fresh fish and fassiekh (salted fish). It was observed that, the minerals contents of the fresh fish (Potassium, Sodium, Iodine, Phosphorous, Chlorine, Zink, Copper and Iron) were significantly different in different salt concentration while Calcium and Magnesium concentration were not significant.
: Mineral content, Hydrocynus spp., Fassiekh, Salt


Consequences of women’s employment from males’ view

Original Research, C2

Tahmanesh, A. and Tahmanesh, R.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 04-09, 2013.

ABSTRACT: One of the important subjects which relate to workforce in Iran is the high ratio of inactive population to the active people in the country so that it is followed by reduced rate of participation. Among the significant factors that effect on this reduced participation is lesser activity of women in outdoor economic and social affairs; and on the other hand, responsibility for rearing children and handling of housework reduces accessibility to high level professions among females and limits the time that they spend for the given occupation and job. This has decreased the opportunity for females’ advancement in several occupational levels and led to their employment at lower ranks. The present study is intended to identify the relationship among four variables: Education degree, social- economic position, rate of work background as well as employment and non- employment of mothers and employed women together with consequences of their employment from men’s attitude. To conduct this investigation, some theories have been adopted including pragmatic (functionalist) theories concerning this point that females’ employment may create occupational competition with husband, radical and liberal feminist theories that are argued about lack of work division in home and exertion of double spiritual- mental stress on women as well as socialist theories of feminists, who believe in that women’s employment has never led to their economic independence. In this study, statistical population includes married male employees with their employed wives and husbands of women, who are employed in Chehardangeh County (Islamshahr city) Education Department, have been tested in two employed groups with education higher than bachelor’s degree as well as employees with education at associate’s degree and lower. In this study, independent variable included: Educational degree of females in statistical population, women’s employment records, their socio-economic position and service records of their mothers. Parameters of variables in this research comprise of occupational competition, work division, self- confidence, stress, and disorder in familial roles, their ideas about girls’ education, economic independence and rate of emotional- feeling relations. Findings of this study indicated that among participants’ occupational- individual characteristics, variable socio- economic position and employment status of mothers of employed women might affect on rate of disorder and interruption in familial roles of employed women. Similarly, education in employed women may improve self- confidence among them and mothers’ employment also affects positively on enhancement the education level in their girls.
Key words:
Consequence, Women employment, Attitude



 Assessment prosocial moral reasoning on Iranian: evaluation the measurement models and validation the measure of Prosocial Moral Reasoning on Iranian university students

Original Research, C3

Azimpour A., Neasi A. Shehni-Yailagh M., Arshadi N. and Beshlide K.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 10-15, 2013.

ABSTRACT: Measure of Prosocial Moral Reasoning (PROM-R) assesses 5 types of prosocial moral reasoning. Besides considering measurement model with 5 latent variables, other different factor models for this measure can be considered. The present study was designed for examining validity and studying these measurement models on Iranian. PROM-R was administered on 438 Iranian undergraduate students, also two measures for assessing empathy and social desirability was administered on 182 persons of them. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that 5 factors model has better fitness than 4, 3, and 2 factors models. Convergent and divergent validity of PROM-R’ subscales by empathy and social desirability was good. Internalized reasoning and overall score of prosocial moral reasoning had significant and positive relationship to empathy. But any of subscales or overall score hadn’t any significant relationship to social desirability. Also the reliability of PROM-R’s subscales that studied by internal consistency and test re test method was good. The gender differences study showed that males had higher score in the lie/nonsense and approval oriented subscales. But females had higher score in internalized moral reasoning and overall score of prosocial reasoning.
: Prosocial Moral Reasoning, Measure of Prosocial Moral Reasoning (PROM-R), Empathy, Social Desirability



Quality Evaluation of Clarias Catfish Fermented Sausage Manufactured by Pediococcus acidilactici 0110

Original Research, C4

Nursyam H. Widjanarko S.B. Sukoso And Yunianta.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 16-20, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to obtain the best level of NaCl concentration with emphasis on the physico-chemical of Clarias fermented sausage. Three different Clarias catfish fermented sausage manufactures (1, 2, and 3% NaCl added) were used to obtain the quality along storage for 28 days. The physiochemical characters of sausage were affected by NaCl addition, NaCl content, water activity, pH, weight loss, water content, water holding capacity; and the higher of protein and fat content. While microbiology was affected by aerobic plate count, total pathogen bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria. Total pathogen bacteria was effectively inhibited on sausage with addition of 1 % NaCl  after 7 days storage, however sausage with addition of 2 and 3 % NaCl was effectively inhibited before 7 days. Sensory evaluation indicated that of 2 % NaCl was acceptable to all parameters.
: Clarias catfish, Fermented Sausage, lactic Acid Bacteria, Sensory Evaluation, Quality.


Death awareness and thinking to death in Molavi's thought

Original Research, C5

Zarei Hajiabadi I.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 21-29, 2013.

ABSTRACT: Molavi's viewpoint about death and the universe behind it is important, because of having heritage of philosophic and theosophical issues from antecedents. Molavi has noticed to death awareness and also to think about death. About death, he has noticed to being real (being right), generality and death signs. About thinking to death, referring to Prophets as a cause for thinking to death, he has noticed that what should be bogeyman for death is not the death, itself, it is human's deed which sweetens and embitters the universe behind death. Unlike to general conception; Molavi doesn’t realize that death is a natural process, and believes that after dying human returns to his own original place, then there doesn't remain any reason to scare from death, also the wise man hastens toward death instead of escaping from it. Molavi is looking for a way to enter the death universe and universe behind it, to figure its secrets out and back to this world with open results to build a favorite life. To achieve this goal, he makes a similarity between death and asleep and by analyzing it, tries to get this goal from asleep, but since he realizes that asleep is imperfect death and consequently is can't lead to this goal completely, he proposes lethargy (or voluntary death) to enter the death universe and universe behind it.
: Molavi, Death awareness, thinking to death (Death ponders), Voluntary death.



Investigating the Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies, and Academic Self-Handicapping with Academic Achievement in Male High School Students in the Tribes of Fars Province

Original Research, C6

Javanmard A., Hoshmandja M and Ahmadzade L.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 27-34, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between self-efficacy, cognitive and metacognitive strategies, and academic self-handicapping with academic achievement in male high school students in the tribes of Fars province, Iran. For research, a descriptive, correlational method has been used. The population of this study was male high school students in the tribes of Fars province studying in the academic year of 2010-2011. A sample of 322 students was selected by means of cluster sampling.  The instruments utilized in this study included the self-efficacy questionnaire developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem, the cognitive and metacognitive strategies questionnaire developed by Vahedi, and the self-handicapping questionnaire developed by Jones and Rhodewalt. The data gathered in this research were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics (mean, frequency, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, regression, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe test, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). The findings revealed that there was a significantly positive relationship between self-efficacy and academic achievement. Furthermore, there was a significantly positive association between cognitive and metacognitive strategies and academic achievement. In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between academic self-handicapping and academic achievement. The results of the regression analysis showed that academic self-handicapping and academic self-efficacy are significant predictors of academic achievement, and cognitive and metacognitive strategies are not good predictors of academic achievement. Moreover, the results of this research demonstrated that different groups of students - students had different fields of study and were in different grades – were not significantly different with regard to academic self-efficacy, academic self-handicapping, and cognitive and metacognitive strategies. However, there was significant differences in employing metacognitive strategies with regard to students’ grades and fields of study.
Self-efficacy, cognitive strategies, Metacognitive strategies, Academic self-handicapping, Academic achievement, Nomadic students.



The Study of Effectiveness of Group Training of Self-talking Control Technique on Improving Educational self-efficacy in students

Original Research, C7

Mirjalili B, Barzegar F, Bafrooei K and Khezri H.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 35-39, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The Present paper aim is to determining group training efficiency of self-talking control technique on educational self-efficacy (including three subscales; trial, context and aptitude) of third graders in Yazd girl’s junior high schools. In this research, the semi-experimental method of pre-experiment and post-experiment types with control group is used. The Applied tool in this research was Educational Self-efficacy Questionnaire. Statistical population was included 150 girl students with 14.2 years old average from 2nd district of Yazd Education Organization which were selected by cluster sampling method and 30 of them who had lowest self-efficacy grade were assigned to two groups, randomly (15 in experimental group and 15 in control group). In order to analyze the collected data, the method of multivariate analysis of variance was used. The finding showed group training of self-talking control technique on girl students was effective and results in educational self-efficacy increases.
: Self-Talking, Educational Self-efficacy, Aptitude, Context, Trial



Explanation of the Relationship between Creativity and Knowledge Management with Organizational Entrepreneurship in the Education from Principals Point of View

Original Research, C8

Imani J. Mehtarpour M. Asadi Piran N.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 40-51, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to explain the relationship between creativity and knowledge management with organizational entrepreneurship in education. The statistical population was the total managers of the high schools in Hormozgan province in academic year of 2012 -2013. Among this population 160 persons were selected randomly according to Kergesi and Morgan formula in order to do the study. This investigation was operated in a descriptive and correlative method and in order to collect the data 3 questionnaires of and knowledge management and entrepreneurship, whose Reliability and Validity were confirmed, were provided. For the aim of data analysis, the statistical methods of Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression coefficients were used. The results show that there is a significant relationship between the knowledge management with organizational entrepreneurship. Among the different components, only the component of knowledge usage was able to predict the organizational entrepreneurship. Also there is a significant relationship between the creativity with organizational entrepreneurship. And among its components, 3 components of expansion, invention and flexibility were able to predict the organizational entrepreneurship.
: Knowledge Management, creativity, Organizational Entrepreneurship



Study and comparison the family climate of SMS addicted and normal adolescent girls

Original Research, C9

Nasr Isfahani N.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 52-55, 2013.

ABSTRACT: As for importance the family role in people's life and this subject that adolescence is the most challenging and critical period of human development, present research proceeded to compare the family climate of SMS addicted and normal adolescent girls. The statistical universes of this research were high school girl students from Tehran 7 region. One school was selected randomly through girly high school of this region then one class of each grade was selected randomly and these students answered family climate scale and dependency on message questionnaires. After that, responders were divided into two 60 people groups on the basis of dependency on message questionnaire scores and their family climates were compared with each other. Results of independent-sample t test with 95% confidence showed that there is a meaningful difference between family climate of two normal and dependent on message groups and the adolescents who didn’t depend on message, got higher mark in comparison of family climate. At result, adolescents’ families who didn’t depend on message had more positive climate. This problem is confirmation of the family role importance in detection of behaviors of the adolescence periods especially tendency to over-use message and presented need to more researches in the case of family consolidation and parent-child relations improvement.
: Family climate, SMS addiction, Adolescent girls


Using Vacuum Cooling Method of Precooling Process of Cabbage

Original Research, C10

Rahi S. and Bahrami H.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 56-59, 2013.

ABSTRACT: Temperature declining of harvested crops to reach an optimum level during 24 hours after harvesting is the main contributing purpose of pre-cooling methods at which the quality of crops maintain at the best point for customer satisfaction. Vacuum cooling is known as a rapid evaporative cooling technique for any porous product which has free moisture. The aim of this research is to apply vacuum cooling technique for cooling of the cabbage and show the pressure effect on the cooling time and temperature decrease. The results showed pressure 0.7 Kpa reduce the cooling time of cabbage by 17% and 39% compared with 1 and 1.5 Kpa, Respectively .and select pressure 0.7 KPa as the pressure in the final for chamber will lower mass loss. It has been also found that temperature distribution within the products during vacuum cooling despite the cabbage complex structure was homogeneous.
Key words:
Cabbage, Vacuum Cooling, Time Cooling, Mass Loss, Pressure


The relationship between of personality traits and academic burnout in university students

Original Research, C11

Soliemanifar O. and Shaabani F.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 60-63, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of personality traits and academic burnout. The sample consisted of 150 MSc students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz within the academic year of 2011-2012 who were selected randomly by multi-stage random sampling method. The data was collected by Big five inventory (BFI), and Maslach Burnout Inventor-Student Scale (MBI-SS). Pearson correlation analysis showed that openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion had a significantly negative correlation with academic burnout. Neuroticism had a significantly positive correlation with academic burnout. Results of regression analysis also showed that personality traits played a major role in predicting academic burnout.
: Personality Traits, Academic Burnout, University Students


The Study of Adult Attachment Styles, Communication Patterns, and Marital Satisfaction

Original Research, C12

Raeisipoor Z. Fallahchai R. and Zarei E.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 64-68, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between attachment styles, communication patterns, and marital satisfaction in Band-Abbas married people. The research design was a descriptive correlation, and the study sample included 240 couples with at least 6 months from the time they were living together. Data collection tools, including 4 measures of Demographic Questionnaire, The Adult Attachment Scale (AAS), Communication Pattern Questionnaire (CPQ), and The ENRICH Marital Satisfaction scale (EMS). This type Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis of data (P
: Attachment Styles, Communication Patterns, Marital Satisfaction


Efficiency Evaluation in Bell Pepper Production of Greenhouses in Iran

Original Research, C13

Mohammadi Farani S. and Bahrami H.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 69-74, 2013.

ABSTRACT: In this research a data envelopment analysis (DEA) was applied to optimize the energy efficiencies of greenhouse bell pepper production units and to discriminate efficient producers from inefficient ones in south of Isfahan province in Iran. The degree of pure technical efficiency was investigated by BCC model based on nine energy inputs (water for irrigation, human labor, diesel fuel, machinery, fertilizers, chemicals, seeds, manure and electricity), and output yield values. The data were collected through a face-to-face interviewing from 30 greenhouses in selected area. The results indicated that total energy input was 12972218 MJha-1. The highest percentage of total energy input was consumed by diesel fuel. About 97.52% of the total energy had been consumed by diesel fuel. The results from BCC model indicated that 20 of greenhouses were efficient.
: Data Envelopment Analysis, Pure Technical Efficiency, Bell Pepper


The survey of the relationship between learning styles and thinking styles with academic self-efficacy in English language among the students of Islamic Azad university of Behbahan

Original Research, C14

Negahi M. Ghashghaeizadeh N. and Hoshmandja M.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 75-82, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between learning styles and thinking styles with academic self-efficacy of English lesson among students of Islamic Azad university of Behbahan. The present study was applied in terms of purpose, and regarding the method of concluding research it was co relational.The statistical population pool of the research includes all of the students of Islamic Azad university of Behbahan,who in the first semester of 2012-2013 academic year have selected their subject units, and this number amount to 7941 students. According to stratified sampling and Morgan table, a sample of 367 students was selected, which ultimately 367 questionnaires were collected.Data collection tools include Kolb learning style questionnaire, Sternberg thinking styles questionnaire, and researcher-made questionnaire of English lesson academic self-efficacy of students. Research data was analyzed by descriptive statistic methods (mean, frequency and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, regression coefficient, and chi square test). Data analysis results showed that the judgmental thinking style and legislative thinking style had a significantly positive relationship with academic English lesson self-efficacy of students. But there was a significantly negative relationship between the executive thinking style and the academic self-efficacy of students, also there was a significantly positive relationship between all of leaning styles elements with academic English lesson self-efficacy of students. Regarding academic self –efficacy there was a significant difference between students of humanities and engineering students, but academic self –efficacy rate was identical between male and female students.
Key words
: Learning Styles, Thinking Styles, English Lesson, Academic Self-Efficacy, Students


Evaluation on the relation between Earning Response Coefficient (ERC) and Financial Leverage

Original Research, C15

Ramzi Radchobeh Z. Biyabani S. and Nikoumaram H.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 83-87, 2013.

ABSTRACT: In this research, relation between Earning Response Coefficient and financial leverage are  evaluated. The main purpose in this research, evaluation of abnormal return influence from unexpected profit when profits are declared and according to company`s financial leverage. Measurement criterions of financial leverage are classified into 2 groups: 1. Income approach, 2.Balance sheet approach But in this survey Balance sheet approach is used. Due to different opinions about use of book and market approaches in calculating financial leverage, in this survey both approaches are used. According to this explanation we will have: 1. Ratio of liabilities to total of assets (book value) 2. Ratio of liabilities to (market value of equity + book value of liabilities). Total assets show company`s book value and (market value of equity + book value of liabilities) show company`s market value. Study on the only hypothesis research with help of Regression`s analysis according to 2 approaches, book and market value, during 2004-2010 shows that financial leverage has no significant effect on abnormal returns . In fact, level of leverage and capital structure of companies has no effect on the reaction of Investors and analysts to release Good and Bad news.
: Earning Response Coefficient, Abnormal return, unexpected profit, financial leverage.