Volume 3 : Issue 3, May 2013

Table of Content, 29 May 2013

Research Title/
Graphical Abstract

Article Information /


Teenage Pregnancy in the Builsa District: A Focus Study in Fumbisi

Original Research, C34

Phaphali Adzitey S., Adzitey F. & Suuk L.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 185-188, 2013.

ABSTRACT: Teenage pregnancy is a concern in both developed and developing countries. This study examined the knowledge of teenagers in teenage pregnancy and the factors that lead to teenage pregnancy in the Builsa District using Fumbisi as a case study. It also provides suggestions to curb teenage pregnancy. Questionnaires were administered to twenty teenagers between the ages of fourteen and twenty years. The study showed that 80% of the teenagers had knowledge in teenage pregnancy while 20% had no idea of what teenage pregnancy is about. Sixty five percent (65%) indicated that their parents are able to meet their needs and wants. Of the 35% whose parents are unable to meet their needs and wants, they make ends meet from other family members (44%), boyfriends (33%), prostitution (22%), and husbands (4%). Forty percent (40%) indicated that their parents have ever discussed sex and sexuality with them, of which abstinence and the changes that occur during adolescence were the main issue often discussed. The teenagers (80%) suggested that abstinence is the best practice to control teenage pregnancy and their reasons were that contraceptives were not 100% safe to use due to their side effects on human health, they also added that prevention was better than cure. The remaining 20% also said they would go in for contraceptives because they could not abstain from sex. Teenage pregnancy can lead to several unwanted implications in the life or future of teenage girls, especially in under developed countries.
Key words:
Abstinence, Contraceptives, Parents, Pregnancy, Teenager


Study of Emotional Intelligence from Childhood to Middle Age

Original Research, C35

Haghighi S., Zemestani M. and Samavi S.A.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 189-192, 2013.

ABSTRACT: Given that emotional intelligence is affected by intelligence, emotions, and social relationships and these factors change with age and a few research has been conducted on the development of emotional intelligence, so the aim of this paper is to study development of emotional intelligence in males who are in the ages between 7 to 45 years. The population of this study was all the 7 to 45 years old males in Bandar Lengeh city. 760 (20 per year) participants were selected among them randomly. Data collected by using Bar-On emotional intelligence questionnaire. The results were presented as descriptive graphs and showed that components of emotional intelligence will improve with age but this improvement reach to its peak in the mid of third decade of life and after that it will not experience a big change. According to the findings of the present study, it is a need that adults lend their emotional intelligence abilities to the adolescence in the sophisticated emotional situations.
emotional intelligence, Childhood, Middle Age



Identifying Barriers to Use New Media in Nomadic Schools of Fars Province and Providing Proper Strategies in order to benefit from them

Original Research, C36

Aliabadi K. Ahmadzade L, Javanmard A., and Hoshmandja M. 

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 193-202, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify barriers to use new media in nomadic schools as well as providing proper strategies in order to benefit from them. The method used in this study was not experimental one but survey one. Statistical population of this study consisted of all teachers and administrators of ordinary and smart nomadic high schools of Fars province in the 2011-2012 academic years. This population included 121 individuals and 7 schools in which 94 individuals and 6 schools were selected randomly. Research methodology was a questionnaire including 40 questions specifically designed for teachers and administrators. This questionnaire was sent to them, i.e. teachers and administrators. We asked them to survey that questionnaire and answer it, i.e. put forth their opinions. First, the questionnaire was administered at a scale limited to 20 individuals including teachers and administrators in order to determine reliability of research methodology; then reliability coefficient was obtained equal to 0.84 using Cronbach's Alpha. Moreover, validity of research methodology was based on comments put forth by supervisors and advisors as well as a number of experienced teachers. Obtained data of research were analysed using inferential and descriptive statistical methods such as ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results showed that management factor is the most important barrier to use new media in nomadic schools based on views of teachers and administrators of smart and ordinary high schools. According to research results, benefiting from new media as well as communication and information technologies in education system requires large investment as well as having a plan- which administrators of this system had designed it themselves or have it designed by someone else. The most basic step in this regard is conducting a research. First, education system should be aware of its situation, i.e. its current situation; then it requires planning at both the macro level and the micro level in this context.
New Media, Nomadic Schools, Smart Nomadic High Schools.



Examining the Relation between Attribution Style and Personality Characteristics and Academic Performance of BandarAbbas High School Studentss

Original Research, C37

Tayebi Sogh M., Karimi A., Haghighi H., Aryamanesh S. Danshjoo M.J., and Ghaderi F.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 203-208, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research is to examine the relation between attribution styles and personality characteristics and academic performance Bandar Abbas high school students. The community research is all of the high school student boys of Bandar Abbas. For this purpose, 386 sample students were selected with the use of multistage stratified random sampling. We were selecting the 46-question attribution style questionnaire and 60-question NEO questionnaire as collection tool. The results of analysing have shown that there is a positive correlation between compatibility factor and academic performance, among personality characteristics, compatibility and among attribution styles, positive attribution style are the ones which define the performance. Results of the present research along with intensifying the important role of positive attribution style in academic achievement of students could help us prevent harmful consequences of failure by controlling factors result in failure.
: Attribution Style, Personality Characteristics, Academic Performance and Secondary School.


Representation of Femininity Patterns in the Novel

Original Research, C38

Khojasteh F., Jamali A. & Jahanshahi S.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 209-212, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This article aims to reflect the patterns of femininity in Iranian women’s literature through the study of the novels written by them. A significant event that shows a fundamental change in the lives of women is the internal dialogues of the main characters. Based on this feature, this article aims to study the ways through which women are depicted in these novels. The basis for the analysis is the three patterns of femininity that is traditional woman, masculine woman and the type of woman that according to pioneer women movement is the most desirable patterns of femininity. To this aim, Postcard, Who Does Believe Rostam, Tarlan, and Tibet Dream are analysed. The results of the study indicate that the main characters of these novels depict the three patterns of femininity. Some of these characters escape their own womanhood and choose masculine behaviours. Others follow traditional patterns at the beginning and act according to traditions and structures of the society; however, they later re-think their world as the result of encountering external factors and the changes inside them, consequently managing to create a new pattern of femininity through these reflections.
Key words:
Femininity Patterns, Iranian Women’s Literature, Novel



Investigating Organizational Health at Behbahan Islamic Azad University with Regard to Demographic Variables in the View of Faculty Members

Original Research, C39

Ghashgaeizadeh N. & Masudian P.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 213-220, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the degree of organizational healthy in Behbahan Azad University from its faculty members’ point of view and the relationship between their conception of organizational health and individual factors such as   age, gender, education, record of service, employment situation, and field of study. The population of the study included all faculty members of Behbahan branch of Azad University who had instructional activity in the first semester of the academic year 2010-2011, a sample of 178 faculty members was selected through applying cluster sampling. In order to gather data, the fifty-item Organizational Health Questionnaire developed was administered. This questionnaire is based on the Organizational Health Scale developed The MTh Organizational Health Scale developed. This questionnaire has a reliability coefficient of 0.95. Man.-Whitney u- test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyse the data. The findings showed that Behbahan Azad University had an average level of organizational health. Faculty members considered morale as more desirable than other dimensions at that university. Finally, there was no meaningful association between professors’ gender, age, marital status, place of residence, record of service, field of study, and experience and their conception of organizational health. There was a meaningful relationship (p
Key words: Organizational Health, Behbahan Islamic Azad University, Demographic Characteristics, Faculty Members.



The effect of Teaching Metacognition Strategies on Time Management

Original Research, C40

Imani Z., Sabetimani M., ArjmandQujur K. and Salehardestani S.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 221-228, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of teaching metacognition strategies on time management among the undergraduate students in Takab University of Applied Science and Technology. The research proposal was experimental with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The population consisted of sixty students who were selected randomly by stratified sampling and replaced in two groups of experimental and control. In collecting the data about time management, we used Queen and Associate’s time management questionnaire (1990) that was performed in pretest and posttest forms for the two groups. Having carried out the pretest, the experimental group received metacognition strategies training. While the control group did not receive any metacognition strategies training, the experimental group received nine sessions of 70 minutes duration. After completing teaching metacognition strategies to the experimental group and not teaching these strategies to the control group, the Queen and Associates questionnaire was carried out for the two groups. Then the scores received from the two groups were analysed by using covariance analysis. Research findings indicated that teaching metacognition strategies bears positive effects on the students’ time management.
Key words: Cognition, Metacognition, Metacognition Strategies, Time Management.



The Effectiveness of Ellis Couple Therapy Training (The Rational-Emotional-Behavioral Approach) on Reducing the Marital Repulsion

Original Research, C41

Zarei E., Sadeghifard M., Adli M. & Taiebi Soogh M.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 229-232, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The present research was performed to study the effectiveness of Ellis couple therapy training (the rational-emotional-behavioural approach) on lowering the marital Burnout in Bandar Abbas county couples. The method of this semi experimental survey was the pretest-posttest type with a control group. The research sample composed of 30 couples referred to Bandar Abbas counselling centres in the year ending on March 21 2013 who were placed in test and control group randomly. The dependent variable in this research was the marital Burnout which was evaluated by the marital Burnout questionnaire. The independent variable was also Ellis couple therapy training (the rational-emotional-behavioural approach) which was taught to the test group in 8 sessions. The co-variance analysis was also used to study the research hypotheses. The obtained results showed that the marital Burnout average scores for the test group's post-test was significantly lower than the one for the control group. The obtained results express that Ellis couple therapy can be applied as an effective method in lowering marital Burnout in a short period.
Ellis Couple Therapy Training (the Rational-Emotional-Behavioural Approach), Marital Burnout.



The Relationship Between of Academic Achievement Motivation and Academic Burnout in Postgraduate Students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

Original Research, C42

Soliemanifar O., Shaabani F. and Morovati Z.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 233-236, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between of achievement motivation and academic burnout. The sample consisted of 150 MSc students of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz within the academic year of 2012-2013 who were selected randomly by multi-stage random sampling method. The data was collected by Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), and Maslach Burnout Inventor-Student Scale (MBI-SS). Pearson correlation analysis showed that intrinsic motivation had a significantly negative correlation with academic burnout. Also Amotivation had a significantly positive correlation with academic burnout. Results of regression analysis also showed that academic achievement motivation, Specifically Intrinsic motivation, and Amotivation, played a major role in predicting academic burnout.
: Academic Achievement Motivation, Academic Burnout, University Students


Study of Cooperative learning Effect on Academic Achievement

Original Research, C43

Zarei E., Zainalipour H., Haidari H. and Samavi S.A.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 237-240, 2013.

ABSTRACT: Present research aims to investigate the effect of cooperative learning on the academic achievement. This is a quasi-experimental research with pre-test, post-test and control group. The statistical society include the students of Middle schools in Bandar Abbas and the sample consists of 25 girls and 25 boys for test group and the same number of students for control group. The cooperative learning method was applied in the test group for 12 sessions while the control group was being taught traditionally. The results indicated that cooperative learning method increases the academic achievement in the test group. Therefore, cooperative learning increases the academic achievement of students.
Key words:
Cooperative Learning, Academic Achievement, Students.


Examining Effect of Corporate Governance on Debt and Equity of Shareholders of Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

Original Research, C44

Sharifi R. and Bidokhti T.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 241-244, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This paper examined impact of corporate governance on debt and equity of shareholders using Tobit model. Samples include 62 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during 9 years period (2003-2011). According to theoretical principles and literature (subject matter), five hypotheses were developed. Tobit regression model was used in order to test research’s hypotheses. This model was not considered as an important analytical method in behavioural sciences. State software, version 11, was used to conduct final analysis of research. Results showed that there is significant relationship between institutional ownership share and capital structure. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between managerial ownership, board of directors’ size, duality of CEO duty (or CEO duality) and non-duty members of board of directors and capital structure.
Capital Structure, Tobit Model, Ratio of Debt to Equity of Shareholders, Corporate Governance.


Investigating the Relationship between Cognitive Style (Filed Dependence/Independence) and Academic Achievement in Male and Female Students of Behbahan Islamic Azad University

Original Research, C45

Ahmadzade L. & Shojae M.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 245-249, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study purports to examine the association between cognitive style (field dependence/independence)   and academic achievement in male and female students of Behbahan Islamic Azad University. With regard to objectives, this research is applied and in terms of data gathering, it is correlational. The population of this study consists of 7500 students entering this university in 2010-2011 academic years. The sample used in this project consists of 1009 students selected by means of cluster sampling. The latent patterns test developed by Vikin et al. was used to measure cognitive style (field dependence/independence). In this research, criterion validity coefficient was 82% for men and 63% for women. Test-retest method was utilized to measure the reliability of the latent patterns test which was .82 for both men and women. In order to describe the sample, descriptive statistics were used and in order to answer the research questions, inferential statistics, such as Pearson correlation coefficient, independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Scheffe post hoc test were run. The findings of this research project showed that there is a significant positive relationship between male and female students’ field dependence and field independence and their academic achievement. In addition, regression analysis revealed that cognitive style is a significant predictor of academic achievement. Finally, it was found that girls outperform boys as regards to academic achievement.
Key words:
Academic Achievement, Cognitive Style, Feld Dependence, Field Independence.


The Study of Adult Attachment Styles, Value Orientation and Marital Adjustment

Original Research, C46

Ghotbaldinianyazd S., Fallahchai R. and Zarei E.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 250-255, 2013.

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between attachment styles, value orientation, and marital adjustment in married people in Bandar Abbas city. The research design was a descriptive correlation, and the study sample included 401 married women. Data collection tools, including 4 measure of Demographic Questionnaire ,The Adult Attachment Scale (AAS), was translated and adopted into Persian; Value Orientation Questionnaire (VOQ), was translated and adopted into Persian by researchers, and The Marital Adjustment scale (EMS), was translated and adopted into Persian. Results of Pearson correlation analysis of data representing that there was a significant positive relationship between attachment styles and marital adjustment, and between value orientation and marital adjustment. Results of multiple correlation analysis also suggest the existence of multiple relationships between attachment styles, value orientation and marital adjustment and attachment styles was the best predictor of marital adjustment.
Key Words:
Adult Attachment Styles, Value Orientation, Marital Adjustment, Married people.


Histological Changes in Selected Organs of Oreochromis Niloticus Exposed to Doses of Lead Acetate

Original Research, C47

Doaa M.M., and Hanan, H. A.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 256-263, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This study is carried out to investigate the effects of doubled sublethal concentration of lead acetate on some selected organs of tilapia. 30 Fish were randomly chosen and divided into 3 groups. The first one served as control, the second and third groups were exposed for 3 weeks to 0.4 and 0.7 mg lead acetate/ liter of water respectively. The results of this work clearly indicate that lead has adverse effects on the gills, ovaries, liver and hepatopancreas of tilapia. The severity of lesions caused by lead acetate was positively correlated with the concentration. The gill damage includes hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments and severe hemorrhage in gill lamellae. Also, lead induces significant atresia in ovaries. The liver showed vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes and dilatation in hepatic sinusoids. The hepatopancreas showed loss of contact between hepatocytes and pancreaocytes and appearance of apoptotic nuclei.
: Lead Acetate, Liver, Gills, Liver, O. niloticus, Histopathology 


Effect of Chitosan Modified Process from Shrimp Shell (Littopenaeus vannamei) toward the Fat Oxidation of Tuna Fish Fillet (Thunus thunus)

Original Research, C48

Susanti H., Nursyam H. and Martinah A.

J. Life Sci. Biomed., 3(1): 264-267, 2013.

ABSTRACT: This research was aimed to know the influence of chitosan modified process from vannamei shrimp shell (Littopenaeus vannamei) toward the fat oxidation of tuna fish fillet. The treatment used in this research was the storage time period along with the submersion process using chitosan toward the chemical parameters (fat, TVB, and TBA content). The result showed that the long-lasting storage time of tuna fish fillet that had been dissolved into chitosan (DMPA) influenced the fat oxidation of tuna fish fillet than the chitosan control (DPMA). The hindrance of the fat oxidation was indicated by the chemical parameter value which went below the standard limit of food which are good to be consumed. The result was derived from the seventh-day-treatment which included fat content of 11,559%, TVB content of 4,504 mg N/100 g, and TBA content of 1,800%.
Key words:
Chitosan, Fat Oxidation, Tuna Fish Fillet


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