Volume 8 (5); September 25, 2018
Controlling Powdery Mildew; Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi as Biocontrol Agent instead of Chemical Fungicides
Yousefi Z, Zanganeh S, Riahi H and Kaya Y.
J. Life Sci. Biomed., 8(5): 77-83, 2018; pii:S225199391800012-8
Plant protection based solely on modern fungicides could lead to genetic changes in neurons of animal and humans that contribute to cases of autism and Alzheimer disease, unless the bio control agents is applied or replaced. Most researches is focused on the strongest chemical fungicides, dangerous to human health, for effective plant disease control and we believe that non-chemical control methods such as biological agents like AMF are of great importance. The aim of study was to investigate whether the soil inoculation with Glomus isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) affected control of powdery mildew disease of apple MM111 and its survival and growth instead of use of chemical fungicides such as Flint and Stroby. Twenty apple seedlings were randomly arranged to 4 treatments, each with 5 replicates (T1, control = no AMF, no fungicide, T2= Flint fungicide, T3= Stroby fungicide and T4 = only AMF mixture) and were monitored throughout 9 weeks. All seedlings were exposed to powdery mildew on week 6 and only T2 and T3 plants treated by fungicides after developing mildew colonies on the leaves. Results showed that, seedling length in plants cultivated in AMF-inoculated-soil was significantly higher than other treatments especially in weeks 1-4 and weeks 6-9. Leaf growth rate of all plants during the experimental growth period non-significantly increased between treatments with the exception of first week that did show a significant increase in leaf growth rate of group 4 plants, even after exposure to disease. T4 samples showed a high average of leaves numbers (P < 0.05) in compared to other groups followed by T3 samples during the experimental growth period. The data from this study confirmed the response of seedling and leaf growth rates of apple seedlings to mycorrhizal colonization. It was concluded that plants cultivated in soil inoculated to AMF throughout 6 weeks had higher resistance and growth rates against Podosphaera leucotricha fungi as an agent of powdery mildew disease in apple seedling and it can be considered as an applicable strategy in biocontrol measures against pathogens when most researches is focused on chemical fungicides.
Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Modern fungicide, Powdery mildew, Apple seedling and leaf, Plant biocontrol
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Review on Genetic Engineering and Omitted Health Research.
Birhan M, Yayeh M and Kinubeh A.
J. Life Sci. Biomed., 8(5): 84-89, 2018; pii:S225199391800013-8
Central to the development of green lifestyles is the consumption of foods that by dint of their status as chemical free locally produced and/or free of genetically modified ingredients, reduce the environmental impact of food provision. Yet there are many other factors, such as health concerns, that may also encourage the consumption of ‘green’ foods. Commercialization of genetically modified organisms has sparked profound controversies concerning adequate approaches to risk regulation. Scientific uncertainty and ambiguity, omitted research areas, and lack of basic knowledge crucial to risk assessments have become apparent. A major conclusion is that the void in scientific understanding concerning risks posed by secondary effects and the complexity of cause-effect relations warrant further research. Initiatives to approach the acceptance or rejection of a number of risk-associated hypotheses are badly needed. Further, since scientific advice plays a key role in genetically modified organism’s regulations, scientists have a responsibility to address and communicate uncertainty to policy makers and the public. Hence, the acceptance of uncertainty is not only a scientific issue, but is related to public policy and involves an ethical dimension.
Keywords: Chemical, Foods, Genetically, Health, Organisms, Risk
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